Source: Unz.com, Jul 2019
Over the last 50 years in developed countries, evidence has accumulated that only about 10% of school achievement can be attributed to schools and teachers while the remaining 90% is due to characteristics associated with students.
Teachers account for from 1% to 7% of total variance at every level of education. For students, intelligence accounts for much of the 90% of variance associated with learning gains.
The largest effect of schooling in the developing world is 40% of variance, and that includes “schooling” where children attend school inconsistently, and staff likewise.
I further argue that the majority of the variance in educational outcomes is associated with students, probably as much as 90% in developed economies.
A substantial portion of this 90%, somewhere between 50% and 80% is due to differences in general cognitive ability or intelligence. Most importantly, as long as educational research fails to focus on students’ characteristics we will never understand education or be able to improve it.
Source: ZeroHedge, Apr 2019
Abilities Based upon IQ
Source: NBER, Dec 2017
… IQ has both a direct effect on the probability of inventing which is almost five times as large as that of having a high-income father, and an indirect effect through education …
… an R-squared decomposition shows that IQ matters more than all family background variables combined; moreover, IQ has both a direct and an indirect impact through education on the probability of inventing, and finally the impact of IQ is larger and more convex for inventors than for medical doctors or lawyers. Third, to address the potential endogeneity of IQ, we focused on potential inventors with brothers close in age. This allowed us to control for family-specific time-invariant unobservables. We showed that the effect of visuospatial IQ on the probability of inventing is maintained when adding these controls.
Source: AlFinNextLevel website, Jun 2016
Most young people simply do not have the IQ to take a rigorous four year degree that will provide a reasonable return on investment.
There is no magic point at which a genuine college-level education becomes an option, but anything below an IQ of 110 is problematic. If you want to do well, you should have an IQ of 115 or higher. Put another way, it makes sense for only about 15% of the population, 25% if one stretches it, to get a college education. And yet more than 45% of recent high school graduates enroll in four-year colleges. Adjust that percentage to account for high-school dropouts, and more than 40% of all persons in their late teens are trying to go to a four-year college — enough people to absorb everyone down through an IQ of 104.__ Charles Murray quoted in http://www.joannejacobs.com/2007/01/not-smart-enough-for-college/
Source: StatisticBrain, Mar 2017
|Graduate Record Examination Scores
|Standard Deviation +/- 0.80
|Physics & Astronomy
|Other Humanities & Art
|Banking & finance
|Computer & Information Science
Source: Association for Psychological Science, 2016
the heritability of intelligence has been shown consistently to increase linearly throughout the life course in more than three decades of research in longitudinal as well as crosssectional analyses and in adoption as well as twin studies (McGue, Bouchard, Iacono, & Lykken, 1993; Plomin, 1986; Plomin & Deary, 2015). For example, as summarized in Figure 3, an analysis of cross-sectional data for 11,000 pairs of twins—larger than all previous twin studies combined—showed that the heritability of intelligence increases significantly from 41% in childhood (age 9) to 55% in adolescence (age 12) and to 66% in young adulthood (age 17; Haworth et al., 2010).
Some evidence suggests that heritability might increase to as much as 80% in later adulthood independent of dementia (Panizzon et al., 2014); other results suggest a decline to about 60% after age 80 (Lee, Henry, Trollor, & Sachdev, 2010), but another study suggests no change in later life (McGue & Christensen, 2013).
Source: James Thompson blog, Apr 2014
Asians (Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese) are supposed to have higher IQs (about 105 on average) than North Europeans (100), while sciences have been developed overwhelmingly by Europeans and their offshoots. Why Asians are lacking in scientific success might relate to two factors:
1. Low curiosity, which is expressed by lower Openness to experience (-.59 SD) as shown in various cross-cultural personality comparisons.
2. Collectivism, which is captured by various individualism-collectivism indices such as the Hofstede individualism index (IDV), or Hofstede and Triandis individualism index (about -2 SD). The genetic underpinnings for these traits, such as DRD4, 5HTTLPR, and OPRM1 have also become increasingly apparent.
To integrate these psychological traits, a “q” factor is constructed by factor analysis on measures of Openness and Collectivism, which are then correlated with variables measuring academic achievements and also student assessments. It is found that IQ scores coupled with “q” factor scores neatly predict racial scientific achievements and also world-wide student assessments.
Google DOC presentation: