How Computational Creativity Began

Source: Springer, 2015

Computational creativity (CC, for short) is the use of computers to generate results that would be regarded as creative if produced by humans alone. Strictly speaking, this includes not only art, but also innovative scientific theories, mathematical concepts, and engineering designs. But the term is often used—as I shall do, here— to apply mainly to results having artistic interest.

CC was glimpsed on the horizon over 170 years ago, when Ada Lovelace said of Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine that it “might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity or extent” [41, p. 270].
A century later, Alan Turing was producing (as a joke) programmed love-letters on Manchester’s MADM computer [37]; and haikus would soon be generated on Cambridge’s EDSAC machine (see below). Even more to the point (or so it might seem), “creativity” was identified as one of the chief goals in the document planning the Dartmouth Summer School of 1956 [42]. That meeting was where artificial intelligence was officially named, and where hopes for computational modeling first reached beyond a tiny coterie.


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